EU lists Alphabet, Amazon, Meta and three other tech giants as 'gatekeepers'

  • Alphabet: Android, Google Search, Chrome, Google Maps, Google Play, Google Shopping, Google Ads and YouTube.
  • Amazon: Amazon Marketplace, Amazon Ads.
  • Apple: App Store, Safari, iOS.
  • ByteDance: TikTok.
  • Meta: Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, Messenger, Meta Marketplace, Meta Ads.
  • Microsoft: LinkedIn, Windows PC OS.

Not on the list (but maybe should have been):

  • Any marketplace (or equivalent) other than Amazon (i.e. Ebay, Etsy, Zalando, Wish, Shein etc.)
  • Any large regional retailer with digital presence (i.e. Tesco, Metro, Carrefour, Migros, Intermarche, Spar, Next, MediaSaturn, Aldi, Lidl, Netto)
  • Any travel aggregator (Expedia, Kayak, Opodo, etc.)
  • Any PSP (Adyen, Worldpay, Stripe) or card scheme (Visa/MC etc), or other financial institution/facilitator (e.g. BACS/VOCA, SWIFT), or Klarna and similar
  • Shopify and similar.

I know Zalando filed a lawsuit against the EU to make the case that they are not a gatekeeper. I believe we are at the beginning of many lawsuits/concessions between non-European digital businesses and the EU.